Planet name is one thing that is missing - where did the population (growth) and other bars (resources) go? Of three panels that should be there, only one is (the buildings one).
You don't have visibility of the planet, so all your empire knows is that there's a planet there and it has a few buildings on it. To determine if there is population or resources being produced, you'll need better detection.
EDIT: And the saves folder is the default one all the time, I have a shortcut pointing to it on my desktop, so I clean it regularly and I know what Windows says about its contents
I'm not clear on what you mean by "saw that I had leftover saves" and "[folder] shows as empty", but I don't think FreeOrion or the boost filesystem code would create imaginary saves to show you. Do they load or appear in the in-game file browser and start loading when opened before having an error (possibly due to version changes)? If so, they exist somewhere.
As Geoff said, that planet is presumably stealthed. Population and resources should be hidden. Buildings (at least surface buildings)should be too, but that apparently isn't working right.
Building stealth works like ship stealth: if a building is not stealthy, then it will be visible to another empire regardless of its planet's stealth. And, if a building is visible, that makes the planet the building is on at least basically visible (enough to see what's seen in this screenshot), similar to how a fleet is visible if a ship in the fleet is visible, or a system is visible if any of its contents are visible to an empire. If you want planets to be fully hidden, then the planet and all buildings on it need to be stealthy.