If you're into nature and/or castles, you should take the train from Dresden to Königstein (Sächsische Schweiz). The ride is 40 minutes. At Königstein you can visit the castle or hike up to the Lilienstein, or you can just relax in a Biergarten at the Elbe shore... very beautiful landscape there... the German article about the Lilienstein has a couple of nice pictures of the area: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lilienstein
Of course, Dresden itself with the rebuilt Frauenkirche, the Zwinger, the Semperoper as well as the UNICEF world heritage Elbe shore is worthwhile seeing. Don't go see the VolksWagen manufacture, it's far off the center and just merchandising.
I can also highly recommend to visit Prague. Just watch your wallet. (No offense intended, Czechian friends.)
No suggestions for Jülich - haven't been much to this part of Germany.
Btw, nice work on the supply routes!