No diplomacy bonuses, AIs are like players, I like it
Population demanding war/peace, very nice! (Will they also demand stuff like luxuries, or empire expansion or is it just related to diplomacy)
AI's having a distint personality, nice if done well, but the personality shouldn't be to inflexible to adapt to new situations, nor should it make silly decisions to create a believable personality.
I think for treaties the best idea is to have a treaty builder that lets you create compound agreements out of separate clauses, each clause consists of a rule and exceptions. So your peace treaty may consist of separately chosen restrictions on movement, hostilities, colonisation* and possibly other factors if we can think of good ones. All clauses can apply to one or both empries, so you can have a peace treaty that lets you do whatever you wasn't and they cannot fire back, suckers
An example peace treaty may have:
No ships, or orbitals from empire A may fire at any ships from empire B
No ship from empire A with over 500 firepower may enter any star with a planet owned by empire B unless there is a planet owned by empire A in the same system
Empire A may not have over 5000 fire-power in or one jump from a star owned by empire A
Empire A may not colonise any planet in a system that already has a planet owned by empire B.
and the same again with Empires B and A reversed
Of course that is only one example, you could have a treaty that dosn't let either of you send any ships within two jumps of each others stars at all. But leaves you free to blow each other out of the heavens if your ships still mange come into contact somewhere 3 jumps away from both your stars.
* I'll definitely include some restrictions on that when I play.
One question I'd like to ask is should there be some omnipresent diplomacy monitor (left over arbitrators from the Orions?) that instantly reports any infringement, or should the empire have to notice before it counts?
If the second you could have a very nice tie-in to espionage where your treaties allow for monitors to go and keep an eye on things. You send an agent from espionage as the monitor, who has a very good chance of detecting any infringement unless the other guys use deceive monitor from their espionage. If they do it become a battle of skills between the two agents. Furthermore the monitor could abuse his position to do regular espionage, gaining bonuses from his legitimate access but running the risk of being caught.